Dental floss


Reading — Advanced Level
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The use of floss is commonly recommended in order to prevent gingivitis and the build-up of plaque. Namely, the American Dental Association claims that up to 80% of plaque can be eliminated with this method, and flossing may confer a particular benefit in individuals with orthodontic devices. However, empirical scientific evidence demonstrating the clinical benefit of flossing as an adjunct to routine toothbrushing alone remains limited.

Levi Spear Parmly, a dentist from New Orleans, is credited with inventing the first form of dental floss. In 1819, he recommended running a waxen silk thread "through the interstices of the teeth, between their necks and the arches of the gum, to dislodge that irritating matter which no brush can remove and which is the real source of disease." He considered this the most important part of oral care.

Floss was not commercially available until 1882, when the Codman and Shurtleft company started producing unwaxed silk floss. In 1898, the Johnson & Johnson Corporation received the first patent for dental floss that was made from the same silk material used by doctors for silk stitches.

One of the earliest depictions of the use of dental floss in literary fiction is found in James Joyce's famous novel Ulysses (serialized 1918–1920), but the adoption of floss was low before World War II. During the war, nylon floss was developed by physician Charles C. Bass. Nylon floss was found to be better than silk because of its greater abrasion resistance and because it could be produced in great lengths and at various sizes.

Floss became part of American and Canadian daily personal care routines in the 1970s.
Source: Wikipedia
  1. What makes flossing esential?

  2. Flossing may confer a particular benefit in individual with orthodontic problems. What does confer mean in this sentence?

  3. Which poses an inadequate proof regarding dental floss.

  4. What did Levi Spear Parmly recommend?

  5. Johnson & Johnson Corporation received the first patent for dental floss. How is patent used in this sentence?


Practice your writing skills by discussing the questions below

  1. Do you floss? How often?

  2. If you're not flossing regularly, what do you do to assure that your teeth are thoroughly clean?

  3. Do you have any dental problems? If yes, what is it?


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