Reading — Advanced Level
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Read the text and answer the questions

Key facts

Hypertension - or elevated blood pressure - is a serious medical condition that significantly increases the risks of heart, brain, kidney and other diseases.

An estimated 1.13 billion people worldwide have hypertension, most (two-thirds) living in low- and middle-income countries.

In 2015, 1 in 4 men and 1 in 5 women had hypertension.

Fewer than 1 in 5 people with hypertension have the problem under control.

Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide.

One of the global targets for noncommunicable diseases is to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by 25% by 2025 (baseline 2010).

What is hypertension?
Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood against the walls of the body’s arteries, the major blood vessels in the body. Hypertension is when blood pressure is too high.

Blood pressure is written as two numbers. The first (systolic) number represents the pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The second (diastolic) number represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart rests between beats.

Hypertension is diagnosed if, when it is measured on two different days, the systolic blood pressure readings on both days is more than 140 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure readings on both days is more than 90 mmHg.

What are the risk factors for hypertension?
Modifiable risk factors include unhealthy diets (excessive salt consumption, a diet high in saturated fat and trans fats, low intake of fruits and vegetables), physical inactivity, consumption of tobacco and alcohol, and being overweight or obese.

Non-modifiable risk factors include a family history of hypertension, age over 65 years and co-existing diseases such as diabetes or kidney disease.
  1. Hypertension increases the risks of   .

  2. What is the estimated number of people worldwide that have hypertension?

  3. When do we say that a person has hypertension?

  4. How is blood pressure written?

  5. Which of the following is not a risk factor for hypertension?


Practice your writing skills by discussing the questions below

  1. Have you ever experienced an increase in your blood pressure?

  2. How would you describe the feeling of having hypertension?

  3. Give some practices that would improve hypertension.


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